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Dawlat Qatar), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf.
In 1825, the House of Thani was established with Sheikh Mohammed bin Thani as the first leader.
Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971.After defeating the Bani Khalid in 1795, the Wahhabi were attacked on two fronts.The Ottomans and Egyptians assaulted the western front, while the Al Khalifa in Bahrain and the Omanis launched an attack against the eastern front.However, Qatari-Ottoman relations soon stagnated, and in 1882 they suffered further setbacks when the Ottomans refused to aid Al Thani in his expedition of Abu Dhabi-occupied Al Khor.In addition, the Ottomans supported the Ottoman subject Mohammed bin Abdul Wahab who attempted to supplant Al Thani as kaymakam of Qatar in 1888.Qatar is mentioned in 13th-century Muslim scholar Yaqut al-Hamawi's book, Mu'jam Al-Buldan, which alludes to the Qataris' fine striped woven cloaks and their skills in improvement and finishing of spears.In 1783, Qatar-based Bani Utbah clans and allied Arab tribes invaded and annexed Bahrain from the Persians.Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of very high human development and is widely regarded as the most advanced Arab state for human development.Qatar is a significant power in the Arab world, reportedly supporting several rebel groups during the Arab Spring both financially and through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network.In 628, Muhammad sent a Muslim envoy to a ruler in Eastern Arabia named Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi and requested that he and his subjects accept Islam.Munzir obliged his request, and accordingly, most of the Arab tribes in the region converted to Islam.